Colours and contrast
Visual elements like for example text, icons, input fields and charts need to be easily perceivable. On the most basic level that means that they have to clearly stand out from their background. But it's also important that they can be easily distinguished from similar elements around them – for example links embedded in a text paragraph.
The need to see things clearly is a shared one among people who rely on their eyes. But the challenges are quite diverse. People with a visual impairment might not be able to see (certain) colours, their field of view might be blurred or very narrow. But it's also possible that the challenge is caused by a beamer projection in a light room or direct sunlight shining on the screen.
The visual contrast between different colours is a key factor in making things perceivable. But colour contrast has its limitations. Creating robust visual differences between elements often requires a more holistic approach.