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How to handle forms

Forms consist of many interactive elements. To work through and understand the examples in this chapter, besides knowing keyboard only usage, it is good to have a screen reader at hand and know how to handle it. In addition to this, there are some tools and bookmarklets that can be a huge help in your development workflow.

Keyboard only handling

Forms offer a lot of keyboard interactivity, so please check out thoroughly How to browse websites using a keyboard only.

Screen reader handling

For screen reader users, forms offer a lot of special functionalities. Here follows a quick nomination of the most important features. Besides this, check out:

Quick navigation

  • Tab: jump to next focusable element
  • F: jump to next form element
  • B: jump to next button
  • X: jump to next checkbox
  • C: jump to next combobox
  • R: jump to next radio button

You can add Shift to most shortcuts to reverse direction. For example press Shift + F to jump to the previous form element.

Interaction with form elements

  • Enter (or Esc): enter (or exit) focus mode (a distinctive beep sound is played).
    • Only available when focusing an interactive element.
    • In NVDA, NVDA + Space is an alternative way of toggling interaction modes (regardless where the cursor is at the moment).
  • Space: toggle checkbox and expand/collapse combobox.
  • Enter: activate button (or submit form when focusing certain form elements).
  • Up / Down (and sometimes Left / Right).
    • Select radio button value.
    • Select element in combobox.

JAWS braille viewer

In JAWS' braille viewer, when focusing certain form fields, information about them is displayed like this:

  • In text inputs and text areas, _ is indicating the text cursor.
  • In radio buttons and checkboxes, <x> is indicating checked and < > is indicating unchecked status.
  • In radio buttons, the number of options is like 1 of 2.

In addition to this, grouped elements are indicated with their legend like Hobbies grp.

JAWS braille viewer with radio button and grouping info

Display form outline

As an alternative to navigating through the form elements directly on the page, screen readers offer a form outline view.

In the upcoming text, we are referring to the keys NVDA and JAWS. If you do not know about them, see The Insert Modifier Key.

Elements List (NVDA)

NVDA's "Elements List" displays a page's form outline. To open it:

  • First make sure you are in browse mode.
  • Press Alt + F to select the "Form fields" area.
  • Press Alt + B to select the "Buttons" area.

NVDA's "Elements List" dialog

Select a Form Field (JAWS)

JAWS' "Select a Form Field" displays a page's form outline.

To open it, press JAWS + F5.

JAWS' "Select a Form Field" dialog

Useful helper tools

WAVE toolbar

WAVE toolbar checks for some well-known problems regarding forms, for example:

  • It makes sure that every form element has an associated label.
  • It warns about improper form structures (like a <fieldset> without <legend>).

For more details, see WAVE toolbar.

Your mouse

By clicking on an input's label, you can verify whether the two are associated: if everything is done properly, after clicking, the focus is set to the form field.

Useful bookmarklets

Contents Structured

This conveys the tag names of a lot of HTML elements, including form elements. It allows fast visual examination of wrong (or missing) form structures.

For more details, see Contents Structured.


Similar to WAVE toolbar, HTML_CodeSniffer checks for some additional well-known problems regarding forms, for example:

  • Missing <submit> button.

For more details, see HTML_CodeSniffer.